Monsoon Advait

Erratic Monsoon 🌧

Application: GS 1 & 3

1. Overview of Monsoon Season 🌧️

- The monsoon season in India typically lasts from June to September.

- This year, the monsoon season ended with 94% overall rainfall, making it the eighth consecutive year of relatively normal monsoons. 🌦️

2. Apparent Consistency vs. Hidden Variability 🌦️🌑️

- On some days, rainfall intensity reached levels of 100 mm or more, causing flooding. 🌊

- In contrast, there were prolonged dry spells, with some areas experiencing little to no rain for weeks. β˜€οΈ

3. Erratic Rainfall at District Level 🏞️

- Out of the nearly 85,000 district rain-days, only around 5,100 days had normal daily rainfall. 🌦️

- Large deficits were observed on approximately 51,000 district rain-days. β›ˆοΈ

4. Extreme Rainfall Events πŸŒͺ️

- The season witnessed the second-largest number of extreme rainfall events in the past five years, with several districts receiving 60% or more rainfall than normal. πŸ’¦

5. Regional Variations 🌎

- Northwest and central parts of India received 100% or more rainfall during the season. 🌞

- Eastern and North-Eastern regions, however, saw their total monsoon rainfall at barely 80%. ☁️

6. State-Specific Rainfall Deficits πŸ’§

- Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal all faced deficits of over 20% in their monsoon rainfall. 🌧️

- States in the North-East, such as Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, and Tripura, also had similar deficits. β˜”οΈ

7. Kerala's Rainfall Decline 🌴

- Kerala's monsoon rainfall this year was 132.7 cm, the lowest in 12 years. 🌧️

- The phenomenon of declining rainfall in Kerala is not well-explained and has raised concerns. πŸ€”

8. Complex Factors Affecting Monsoon 🌍

- El Nino events have historically resulted in large rainfall deficits during the monsoon. πŸ”₯

- An extended cyclone on the western coast in June and heavy rainfall in the northern states helped mitigate the impact of El Nino. πŸŒ€

9. Uncertainty in Monsoon Due to Climate Change 🌑️🌏

- Climate change contributes to increased uncertainty in monsoon patterns, making predictions more challenging. πŸŒͺ️

- Even with efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, weather unpredictability is expected to persist. 🌎

10. Coping Mechanisms 🚨

- Disaster preparedness includes early warning systems and evacuation plans. 🚧

- Infrastructure improvements should focus on better drainage systems to address urban flooding. πŸ™οΈ

- Climate resilience efforts should involve designing infrastructure to withstand extreme weather events.

Advait IAS