NCRB REPORT 2022: "Crime in India & Assam"

Relevance: GS- ll Crime Against women, GS- lll Internal security CONTEXT: The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) released the "Crime in India for 2022" report, detailing crime patterns in India, revealing trends and changes in various categories of crime.

Detailed Highlights of NCRB Report 2022

  • Overall Crime Statistics:

    • Total cognizable crimes: Over 58,00,000 (including IPC and SLL crimes).

    • Comparison to previous year: 4.5% decline in case registrations compared to 2021.

  • Crime Rate Decline:

    • Decrease from 445.9 (per lakh population) in 2021 to 422.2 in 2022.

    • This decline is attributed to better policing and awareness initiatives.

  • Safest City:

    • Kolkata tops as the safest city with the least number of cognizable offences per lakh population among major cities.

    • Followed by Pune and Hyderabad.

  • Rise in Cyber Crimes:

    • A significant increase of 24.4%, totaling 65,893 cases.

    • Major categories: Cyber fraud, extortion, and sexual exploitation.

    • Cybercrime rate per lakh population rose from 3.9 to 4.8.

  • Suicides and Causes:

    • Over 1.7 lakh suicide cases, marking a 4.2% increase.

    • Major causes: Family problems, marriage-related issues, financial distress.

    • Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu report highest suicide numbers.

  • Crimes Against SCs and STs:

    • Notable increase in crimes against Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

    • Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana report highest cases.

  • Crimes Against Women:

    • Over 4.45 lakh cases, marking a 4% increase.

    • Predominant crimes: Domestic cruelty, kidnapping, assault.

  • Crimes Against Children:

    • An increase of 8.7% in cases.

    • Major concerns: Kidnapping and offenses under POCSO Act.

  • Crimes Against Senior Citizens:

    • A rise of 9.3% to 28,545 cases.

    • Common crimes: Physical harm, theft, fraud.

  • Animal Attacks on the Rise:

    • A significant 19% increase in animal attack incidents.

    • Maharashtra records the highest number of cases.

  • Environment-Related Crime:

    • A decrease of about 18%.

    • Violations under various acts like the Environment Protection Act, Wildlife Protection Act have seen variable trends.

  • Offences Against the State:

    • A slight increase in 2022.

    • Notable rise in UAPA cases; decrease in sedition cases.

  • Rise in Economic Offences:

    • Fraud and cheating are the most common types.

    • An increase in offenses related to breach of trust, forgery.

  • Crimes Against Foreigners:

    • 192 cases against foreigners, up 28% from 2021.

    • Majority victims from Asian and African nations.

  • High Chargesheeting Rates:

    • Kerala, Puducherry, and West Bengal report the highest under IPC crimes.


  • Drop in Crimes Against Women and Children:

    • Notable 50% decrease in 2022.

    • Indicates improved law enforcement and social measures.

  • Conviction Rate for Crimes Against Women:

    • Second-lowest conviction rate in the country.

    • Reflects challenges in the judicial process and investigation quality.

Detailed Overview of National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

  • Establishment and Purpose:

    • Formed in 1986, it serves as a central agency for collecting and analyzing crime data.

    • Vital for policy formulation and crime prevention strategies.

  • Role and Functions:

    • Manages the national database of fingerprints.

    • Facilitates quick access to criminal records for law enforcement agencies.

  • Organization and Structure:

    • A part of the Ministry of Home Affairs.

    • Divided into specialized divisions for efficient data handling and training.

  • NCRB Publications:

    • Provides annual crime reports, statistics on accidental deaths and suicides, prison data, and trends in missing persons.

  • Widely used by policymakers, law enforcement, researchers, and media.

Way Forward:

  • Mixed Picture of Crime: The NCRB Report 2022 Analysis

    • The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) Report 2022 presents a mixed landscape of crime, with reductions in certain areas but rising concerns in others.

  • Cybercrime Surge and its Implications

    • There's been a significant 24.4% increase in cybercrimes, highlighting vulnerabilities in the digital space and the need for increased public awareness and more prudent internet usage practices.

  • The Urgent Need for Strengthening IT Laws

    • Given the surge in cybercrimes, there's a pressing need to reinforce IT laws to bolster online safety and security measures.

  • Persistent Challenges: Crimes Against Women and Children

    • Despite stricter legal amendments, crimes against women and children continue to be a grave concern, necessitating immediate and effective responses.

  • Strategies for Enhancing Safety for Women and Children

    • Strengthening support services for victims.

    • Establishing safe shelter homes.

    • Improving accessibility to legal aid.

    • Leveraging technology, like panic buttons in public spaces and enhanced surveillance systems, to create safer environments.

  • The Importance of a Proactive Approach

    • The data underscores the need for a proactive approach in fortifying online security and implementing measures to protect vulnerable groups, especially women and children.

  • Comprehensive Strategies Beyond Stringent Laws

    • Combatting crimes against vulnerable groups, like women and children, requires more than stringent laws. It involves:

      • Collaborative efforts.

      • Focus on education and community engagement.

      • Improved support services.

      • Judicious use of technology.

      • Specialized training for police officers.

      • Potential adjustments to existing laws.

Conclusion: Toward a Safer Environment for All

The goal is not just about managing statistical figures but working collectively towards establishing a safer environment for everyone.

Advait IAS